Arizona Implements Increased Prison Sentences for Fentanyl Dealers

Investigative Article: Increased Prison Sentences for Fentanyl Dealers in Arizona

In recent years, the opioid epidemic has become a growing concern for many Americans. Fentanyl, in particular, has become a significant problem, as it is one of the most potent and dangerous opioids out there. In response to the fentanyl crisis, Arizona has passed the Ashley Dunn Act, which increases the prison sentences for fentanyl dealers. This law aims to crack down on the distribution of this deadly drug and to prevent more people from falling victim to its addictive and life-threatening effects.

What is the Ashley Dunn Act?

The Ashley Dunn Act is a law that Governor Ducey of Arizona signed in April 2019. The act is named after Ashley Dunn, a 20-year-old woman who died of a fentanyl overdose in 2018. The law changes the minimum prison sentence for fentanyl dealers in the state of Arizona. Previously, the minimum sentence was two years for a first offense. Under the new law, the minimum sentence has been increased to five years for a first offense and up to 25 years for repeat offenders.

How Does The Act Change the Minimum Prison Sentence For Fentanyl Dealers?

The Ashley Dunn Act increases the minimum prison sentence for fentanyl dealers in Arizona. Previously, the minimum sentence for a first-time offense was two years. Under the new law, the minimum sentence has been increased to five years for a first-time offense. Repeat offenders may face sentences of up to 25 years in prison. The law also clarifies that the penalties for fentanyl offenses will be applied to mixtures containing fentanyl, not just pure fentanyl.

How Do Arizona's Sentencing Guidelines Compare to Other States?

Arizona is not the only state that has taken steps to combat the opioid epidemic. Many other states have also implemented harsher penalties for fentanyl offenses. For example, in Florida, fentanyl dealers can face up to 30 years in prison for a first-time offense. In New York, first-degree fentanyl possession is considered a Class A-II felony, which can result in a sentence of up to life in prison. These penalties are among the harshest in the country.

Defenses to Dealing Fentanyl

Despite the severity of the punishment for fentanyl offenses, there are some defenses that a person can use to avoid or mitigate a conviction. One common defense is that the substance in question was not fentanyl or that the defendant did not know that it was fentanyl. Another defense is entrapment, which occurs when a law enforcement officer induces a person to commit a crime that they would not have committed otherwise. A knowledgeable and experienced federal defense attorney can assess the facts of a case and help build a defense strategy.

Get Help From Federal Defense Attorney Josh Kolsrud

Given the harsh penalties and serious consequences of a fentanyl-related conviction, it is crucial to have a skilled and experienced attorney on your side. Josh Kolsrud is a federal defense attorney who has an in-depth knowledge of the legal system and extensive experience representing clients in complex criminal cases. His client-centered approach and dedication to getting results make him a strong advocate for anyone facing fentanyl-related charges. Contact Josh Kolsrud today to learn more about your legal options and to start building a strong defense strategy.

The Bottom Line

The Ashley Dunn Act is a significant step in the fight against the opioid epidemic, particularly with respect to fentanyl. By increasing the sentences for fentanyl offenses, Arizona hopes to deter people from distributing this deadly drug and to prevent more people from dying of an overdose. However, with increased penalties comes the need for skilled and experienced legal representation. If you or someone you know is facing fentanyl-related charges, contact Josh Kolsrud to get the legal help you need to fight for your rights and your future.

Fentanyl,Increased- Fentanyl,Increased

Resolve School Disagreements in Arizona with De Novo Law's Legal Decision-Making Expertise

Feature Article

The Importance of Legal Decision-Making Authority in School Disagreements With Your Ex

As co-parenting becomes increasingly common, disputes over child-rearing decisions have become more prevalent. One common source of disagreement is often schooling, particularly when one parent feels that the other is compromising their child's educational welfare. Arizona has strict laws governing how these conflicts are resolved, and it is vital that every parent is aware of the legal decision-making authority awarded by the court when it comes to schooling decisions, be it joint or sole legal decision-making. In this article, we will explore the importance of legal decision-making authority and how it can impact school disagreements with your ex.

What Is Legal Decision-Making Authority?

Legal decision-making authority refers to the power to make significant decisions about a child's welfare, including health, education, and religion. In Arizona, legal decision-making authority can be granted to one or both parents, either jointly or separately.

Joint legal decision-making is where both parents share the power to make decisions about their child's welfare. In contrast, sole legal decision-making is where one parent holds all the power to make significant decisions about their child's life, including their schooling.

Why Is Legal Decision-Making Authority Important?

Legal decision-making authority plays a crucial role in ensuring the well-being of children of separated or divorced parents, and it's essential to find the best decision-making agreement that works for the child. Co-parenting does not always mean that parents agree on everything, and some disputes can be challenging to resolve without going to court. Legal decision-making authority provides a framework for managing disagreements, and it ensures that the child's best interests are always considered.

How Does Legal Decision-Making Authority Affect School Disagreements?

School decisions, such as enrolling children in a particular school, modifying education plans, and choosing courses, can be the source of dispute between parents after divorce or separation. In Arizona, the legal decision-making agreement dictates how school disagreements will be resolved. Joint legal decision-making requires that both co-parents agree on any major decision about their child's education, while sole legal decision-making allows one parent to make the final schooling decision without the approval of the other parent.

When co-parenting, it's essential to adhere to legal decision-making authority to avoid disputes. In fact, any significant schooling decisions made without the other parent's consent can result in legal repercussions.

Can Disputes Over Schooling Be Resolved Without Going to Court?

Disputes over schooling can be resolved through negotiations, mediation, or arbitration without resorting to litigation. Mediation is a structured process where both parents meet with a third-party mediator to work out a mutually agreeable education plan. Arbitration is similar to mediation but with a neutral third-party who makes a decision regarding the disagreement. Litigation should always be the last option as it may be costly, time-consuming, and emotionally draining.

When Can the Court Resolve School Disagreements?

If mediation or arbitration fails, litigation may be the next step. A judge will be responsible for making a decision about the dispute and analyzing the underlying laws governing the dispute. The judge will consider numerous factors, such as the children's best interests, educational opportunities, and the parents' views. Since each case is unique, the judge may consider other factors as well.


Legal decision-making authority is an essential aspect of co-parenting, particularly when it comes to schooling. Parents should always ensure that they adhere to their legal decision-making agreement to avoid disputes. When disagreements occur, parents should consider mediation or arbitration before resorting to litigation. At De Novo Law, we specialize in Family Law, including legal decision-making authority in Arizona. Contact us today to ensure that your legal decision-making agreement is appropriately drafted and enforced.

School Disagreements With Your Ex? De Novo Law Can Help

"Penalties for Hiding Assets in an Arizona Divorce"

The Importance of Honesty in Divorce Proceedings

The Downside of Hiding Assets in an Arizona Divorce

Going through a divorce can be an emotionally taxing and overwhelming experience, and the prospect of dividing up assets can add to the stress. As a divorcing couple, you may be worried about how your assets will be divided and may be tempted to hide some assets to get a more favorable outcome. However, hiding assets in a divorce is illegal and can lead to severe consequences. In Arizona, all assets and liabilities must be disclosed by both spouses as part of the divorce process. Intentionally hiding assets can result in serious penalties and even criminal charges. It is crucial to be transparent and honest during this process.

The Community Property State of Arizona

Arizona is a community property state, which means that all assets acquired during the marriage are considered joint property and must be divided equitably between both spouses. This means that any assets acquired before or after the marriage will not be considered during the property division process. A common misconception is that community property means that assets will be divided equally. However, equitable does not always mean equal. Factors such as earning capacity, age, health, and the length of the marriage can all come into play when determining how assets are divided. It is essential to have a skilled attorney to assist you in navigating the property division process.

The Consequences of Hiding Assets

When assets are hidden during a divorce proceeding, it can affect the entire process and leave one spouse with an unfair share of the marital property. This can cause resentment and create an unbalanced economic situation for the other party. The courts take hiding assets very seriously and may impose severe financial and criminal penalties upon a guilty party. These penalties can range from financial fines, jail time, or both.

The Importance of Full Disclosure

The importance of full disclosure cannot be overstated in a divorce case. All assets and liabilities must be laid out on the table to ensure that both spouses receive a fair and equitable distribution. This information includes bank accounts, investments, real estate properties, and other assets that were accumulated during the marriage. Even if you have good intentions, failure to disclose can be seen as intentional hiding and can lead to the same penalties as actively concealing assets. It is essential to bring all the necessary documentation to your attorney and disclose all assets' existence, regardless of their value.

The Role of Attorneys in Divorce Proceedings

The process of dividing assets in a divorce can be complicated, and it can be challenging to navigate on your own. Working with knowledgeable attorneys can help ensure that the property division process is fair and equitable. Attorneys can be particularly helpful when it comes to identifying assets that may be hidden or overlooked. Your attorney can help guide you through the process of disclosing all assets and liabilities, ensuring that you are not accused of hiding anything.

Protecting Yourself from Accusations of Hiding Assets

One of the best ways to protect yourself from accusations of hiding assets is to maintain accurate financial records. It is essential to keep track of all financial transactions, including bank statements, investment records, and receipts for significant purchases. Additionally, it is a good idea to work with a forensic accountant if you have reason to believe that your spouse may be hiding assets. Forensic accountants can help you identify hidden assets and ensure that you are receiving a fair distribution of the marital property.

The Bottom Line

Divorce can be a difficult and emotional experience, but it is crucial to approach the process with honesty and transparency. Hiding assets can lead to severe penalties, including financial fines and jail time. It is essential to work with an experienced attorney and to disclose all assets to ensure a fair and equitable property division process. Hiding Assets in an Arizona Divorce-Penalties,Arizona

Kolsrud Law Offices Adds Experienced Criminal Defense Attorney Sandra Schutz to its Team

Feature Article: Sandra Schutz Joins Kolsrud Law Offices’ Defense Team

Kolsrud Law Offices, a reputable Phoenix law firm that specializes in Federal Criminal Law Defense, has recently announced its newest addition to their defense team, Criminal Defense Attorney Sandra Schutz. The firm maintains an excellent reputation in the local and national legal circles, which is why the hiring of Schutz has garnered a lot of interest among legal experts.

Sandra Schutz: A Profile

Sandra Schutz is an experienced and accomplished attorney who has made a name for herself in the legal industry. Prior to joining the Kolsrud Law Offices team, Schutz was a Deputy Public Defender of Maricopa County where she honed her skills in criminal defense.

With over a decade of legal experience, Ms. Schutz has extensive experience in defending clients in both state and federal court. She has previously handled cases involving white-collar crime, drug trafficking, violent crime, and even death penalty cases.

Why Kolsrud Law Offices Chose Sandra Schutz

The Kolsrud Law Offices is a well-established law firm with a reputation for providing top-notch legal services for clients all over the United States. Although the firm already has some of the most skilled and experienced attorneys in their team, they decided that Ms. Schutz’s expertise would be an excellent complement to their already-strong defense team.

Kenneth Kolsrud, founder and managing partner of the firm, shared that they were impressed with Sandra’s reputation in the legal industry and her overall approach to representing clients as their advocate. They are confident that her addition to the team will significantly elevate the quality of legal representation that their clients can expect.

What It Means for Kolsrud Law Offices Clients

The Kolsrud Law Offices is known for its reputation for excellence in criminal defense. By adding Ms. Schutz’s expertise to the team, the firm demonstrates that it remains committed to staying at the forefront of the local and national legal industry, and providing innovative and effective legal representation to its clients.

With Sandra Schutz on their team, clients of Kolsrud Law Offices will benefit from the breadth and depth of her experience and knowledge in criminal defense. Ms. Schutz brings an expansive skill set that includes familiarity with both the state and federal court systems and has handled many high-profile criminal cases in the past.

What Legal Experts Are Saying

Legal analysts and experts in the field of criminal defense were quick to express their admiration for Kolsrud Law Offices’ latest addition to their defense team. Many experts are confident that this move will further strengthen the firm’s reputation as a leading provider of criminal defense services.

The addition of Schutz to the Kolsrud Law Offices team has drawn the interest of experts across the state and even from different parts of the country. Many of them agree that her addition to the team speaks volumes about the firm’s commitment to excellence and its desire to be competitive in a field that is constantly evolving and changing.

A Final Word

The hiring of Sandra Schutz by Kolsrud Law Offices is a strategic move that demonstrates the firm’s commitment to providing the highest quality legal representation to its clients. With Schutz’s wealth of experience and impressive track record of successful cases, clients of the firm are in good hands.

Sandra Schutz Criminal Defense, Kolsrud -Criminal,Kolsrud

Understanding the Process: Criminal Indictments in Arizona Law

Feature Article: Understanding the Nine Stages of a Criminal Case in Arizona

Being charged with a crime is a serious matter that can have a long-lasting impact on a person's life. In the state of Arizona, a criminal case can take several months or even years to be resolved, and it is important for defendants to understand each stage of the process. In this feature article, we will delve into the nine stages of a criminal case in Arizona and provide important information for those facing criminal charges.

1. Arrest and Booking

The first stage of a criminal case in Arizona is the arrest and booking process. This occurs when a person is taken into custody by law enforcement and brought to a local jail or police station for processing. During this stage, the defendant's personal information and fingerprints are taken, and they are typically given a court date for their initial appearance.

2. Initial Appearance

The second stage of a criminal case in Arizona is the initial appearance. This court hearing is typically held within 24 hours of the defendant's arrest and is conducted to inform the defendant of the charges against them and to set bail. If the defendant cannot afford bail, they may be held in jail until their next court date.

3. Arraignment

The third stage of a criminal case in Arizona is the arraignment. During this stage, the defendant is formally charged with the crime they are accused of committing and is asked to enter a plea. The defendant can choose to plead guilty, not guilty, or no contest.

4. Pretrial Conference

The fourth stage of a criminal case in Arizona is the pretrial conference. This is a meeting between the defendant, their attorney, and the prosecutor to discuss the details of the case and attempt to come to a resolution without going to trial. If a plea deal is reached, the defendant will be sentenced and the case will be closed. If no agreement is reached, the case will proceed to trial.

5. Motions Hearings

The fifth stage of a criminal case in Arizona is the motions hearing. This is where the defense and prosecution present arguments to the judge regarding any pretrial motions filed, such as a request to suppress evidence. The judge will then make a ruling, which will impact how the case will proceed.

6. Jury Selection

The sixth stage of a criminal case in Arizona is jury selection. This is where a group of potential jurors is selected and questioned by both the defense and prosecution to determine if they can serve on the jury for the trial. Once a jury is selected, the trial can proceed.

7. Trial

The seventh stage of a criminal case in Arizona is the trial itself. During the trial, both the prosecution and defense present evidence and call witnesses to testify, with the ultimate goal of convincing the jury of their side of the case. Once both sides have presented their cases, the jury will deliberate and reach a verdict.

8. Sentencing

The eighth stage of a criminal case in Arizona is sentencing. If the defendant is found guilty at trial or pleads guilty, the judge will set a sentence. This can include a range of penalties, from fines to probation, or even jail time or prison sentences.

9. Appeals

The final stage of a criminal case in Arizona is the appeals process. If the defendant is found guilty and believes that their trial was unfair or conducted improperly, they can file an appeal to ask a higher court to review the case. Appeals can take many months or even years to resolve and can result in a new trial, a reduced sentence, or an overturned verdict.

It is important for those facing criminal charges in Arizona to understand each stage of the criminal case process and to work closely with an experienced criminal defense attorney. The attorneys at Kolsrud Law Offices have extensive experience defending clients facing criminal charges in Arizona and can provide the guidance and support needed to navigate this difficult time.

If you or someone you know is facing criminal charges in Arizona, contact Kolsrud Law Offices to schedule a free consultation and learn how we can help.

Understanding the Nine Stages of a Criminal Case in Arizona-

Defending Against Minor in Possession Charge: Arizona Law

Investigative Article

What Happens When You Get a Minor in Possession Charge in Arizona?

It's a Friday night and you're at a local college bar, celebrating the end of your first semester. You've been handed a beer by a friend when all of a sudden you're confronted by a police officer, who accuses you of being a minor in possession of alcohol.

This scenario plays out countless times across Arizona every year, leaving many young people with a minor in possession (MIP) charge that can have long-lasting consequences. This investigative article looks at what happens when you get an MIP charge in Arizona, the penalties you could face, and how long it stays on your record.

What is a Minor in Possession Charge?

In Arizona, it is illegal for anyone under the age of 21 to buy, possess, or consume alcohol. If a police officer believes that you are under 21 and have alcohol in your possession, you could face an MIP charge.

It's important to note that you can still be charged with an MIP even if you're not drinking alcohol at the time. If you are caught holding a beer, for example, you could still be charged with an MIP.

What Are the Penalties?

Being convicted of an MIP charge in Arizona can have serious consequences. The penalties depend on a number of factors, including your age, any previous MIP charges, and whether or not you were driving at the time.

For a first offense MIP charge, you could face up to six months in jail, a fine of up to $2,500, and probation. You could also have your driver's license suspended for up to two years.

For a second offense MIP charge, the penalties increase. You could face up to six months in jail, a fine of up to $2,500, probation, and a driver's license suspension of up to two years.

How Long Does an MIP Stay on Your Record in Arizona?

One of the most concerning aspects of an MIP charge is how long it stays on your record. In Arizona, an MIP charge is a misdemeanor offense, which means it will stay on your criminal record unless it is expunged.

If you are convicted of an MIP charge, it will stay on your record for at least two years. If you are under 18 at the time of the offense, it will stay on your record until you turn 22. If you are 18 or older, it will stay on your record indefinitely unless you take steps to have it expunged.

Caught with a Fake ID at Your Local College Bar

Many young people try to use a fake ID to get into bars and buy alcohol. If you are caught with a fake ID in Arizona, the penalties can be severe.

If you are caught with a fake ID, you could face an MIP charge, as well as additional charges for possessing a fraudulent ID. You could also have your driver's license suspended for up to 12 months.

DUI and a Minor In Possession Charge

Being charged with an MIP and a DUI can be a double whammy for young people in Arizona. If you are under 21 and have any alcohol in your system while driving, you could face a DUI charge.

If you are charged with both an MIP and a DUI, the penalties could be severe. You could face fines, jail time, probation, and a license suspension. You could also be required to attend alcohol education classes and perform community service.

Defenses to a Minor in Possession Charge

If you are charged with an MIP in Arizona, there may be defenses available to you. It's important to consult with an experienced criminal defense attorney to discuss your options.

Some potential defenses to an MIP charge could include:

  • The police officer did not have probable cause to believe you were under 21 and in possession of alcohol.
  • The alcohol was not in your actual or constructive possession.
  • The alcohol was for medical or religious purposes.

Free Consultation with an MIP Attorney in Arizona

If you or your child has been charged with an MIP in Arizona, it's crucial to consult with an experienced criminal defense attorney as soon as possible.

The team at Kolsrud Law Offices specializes in defending young people charged with MIPs and other criminal offenses in Arizona. Contact us today for a free consultation.

Defending Against a Minor in Possession Charge: Arizona Law-Minor, Arizona.


Consequences and Legal Assistance for Driving on a Suspended License in Arizona

Opinion Article: The Harsh Reality of Driving on a Suspended License in Arizona


According to the Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT), driving on a suspended license is one of the most common traffic violations in the state. However, getting caught for this offense can have serious consequences, including hefty fines and potential jail time. In this opinion article, we will explore the harsh reality of driving on a suspended license in Arizona and discuss the importance of seeking legal representation from an experienced attorney like Arja Shah Law.

The Financial Consequences of Driving on a Suspended License

Driving on a suspended license can result in severe financial ramifications. The fines associated with this traffic offense can range from hundreds to thousands of dollars, depending on the severity of the offense. Moreover, the costs of having your driver's license reinstated can also be exorbitant, affecting your budget for months to come. In some cases, the court may also require you to attend traffic school or alcohol or drug treatment, which can further add to your financial burden.

The Long-Term Impact on Your Driving Record

A conviction for driving on a suspended license can remain on your driving record for years, which can hinder your ability to obtain car insurance or even find employment that requires driving. Additionally, the Arizona Motor Vehicle Division (MVD) may extend the length of your suspension period, making it even more challenging to restore your driving privileges in the future. As such, it's vital to understand the long-term consequences of driving on a suspended license and seek legal representation to increase your chances of a positive outcome in your case.

The Risk of Jail Time

In Arizona, driving on a suspended license is considered a criminal offense, with a first-time conviction carrying a maximum penalty of 30 days in jail. Repeat offenders face even steeper penalties, with a third violation carrying a minimum of four months in jail. Therefore, it's not worth taking the risk of driving on a suspended license, as doing so can have severe repercussions on your freedom and future opportunities.

The Importance of Seeking Legal Representation

If you find yourself facing charges for driving on a suspended license, it's crucial to seek legal representation from an experienced attorney like Arja Shah Law. They have extensive experience in handling cases related to traffic offenses and motor vehicle violations, providing personalized and aggressive legal representation to their clients. With their guidance and support, you can protect your rights, defend your future, and increase your chances of a positive outcome in your case.

The Need for Increased Awareness

Driving on a suspended license in Arizona is all too common, but many individuals are unaware of the severity of the consequences they may face if caught. As such, it's crucial to increase awareness of the risks associated with this offense and encourage others to seek legal representation if necessary. By doing so, we can reduce the number of individuals facing harsh penalties for driving on a suspended license.


Driving on a suspended license in Arizona is a serious offense that can have long-lasting and severe consequences. Whether you're facing your first offense or are a repeat offender, it's essential to seek legal representation from an experienced attorney like Arja Shah Law. With their guidance and support, you can protect your rights, defend your future, and increase your chances of a positive outcome in your case. Don't face these charges alone – seek the help you need to move forward with confidence. Suspended License, Arizona

Child Custody for Special Needs Children: Insights and Implications

Investigative Article

Child Custody Agreements for Special Needs Children: An Investigative Look

Child custody agreements can be complicated and emotional, but when it comes to special needs children, the situation can become even more complex. The care and support that a special needs child requires can be overwhelming, and the prospect of navigating child custody agreements on top of that can be daunting for any parent. That’s why we wanted to take an investigative look at the topic and provide insights that can help guide parents in this situation.

Special Needs Trusts: Understanding the Implications of a Special Needs Child Turning 18

When a special needs child turns 18, they become a legal adult, which can have significant implications for child custody agreements. At this point, parents may need to consider guardianship and the creation of special needs trusts. A special needs trust can provide financial support for the child while ensuring that they don't lose eligibility for government benefits, such as Medicaid and Supplemental Security Income (SSI).

When a child with special needs is the beneficiary of a trust, the assets in that trust are not counted as income or resources for government benefit purposes. This means that the child can receive government assistance while still benefitting from the trust. It’s important to note that special needs trusts must be set up properly and be managed carefully to ensure the child continues to receive necessary benefits.

Legal Paraprofessionals: A Unique and Affordable Approach to Child Custody Agreements for Special Needs Children

When dealing with child custody matters involving special needs children, traditional family law attorneys may not have the expertise needed to fully understand the unique challenges that parents face. That’s where legal paraprofessionals come in.

Legal paraprofessionals are licensed to provide legal services in family law, but they differ from attorneys in their focused expertise and their ability to offer more accessible and affordable legal support. They can provide guidance and support in navigating complex child custody agreements involving special needs children, ensuring that parents have the resources they need to make informed decisions about the well-being of their child.

The Importance of Communication: Tips for Co-Parenting a Special Needs Child

Co-parenting a special needs child requires open and honest communication between parents. Each parent understands their child’s unique needs and abilities, and communication can help ensure that the child’s care is consistent and aligned. Here are some tips for successful co-parenting:

  • Establish a communication plan: Agree on a method for communication, and set expectations for frequency and responsiveness.
  • Have a shared understanding of the child’s needs: Work together to create a shared understanding of the child’s needs, medical requirements, and preferences.
  • Put the child’s interests first: Always prioritize the child’s best interests, even if it means compromising on personal preferences.
  • Be flexible: The needs of a special needs child can change rapidly, so be willing to adapt and adjust the parenting plan as needed.

Understanding the Role of a Guardian Ad Litem in Child Custody Agreements for Special Needs Children

A guardian ad litem (GAL) is a court-appointed advocate who represents the interests of a child in a legal proceeding. In child custody cases involving special needs children, a GAL can be particularly helpful in providing an objective assessment of the child’s needs and interests. They can investigate and make recommendations to the court, ensuring that the child’s needs are taken into account when making custody determinations.

In some cases, a GAL may also be given decision-making authority in certain areas, such as medical treatment or educational decisions. This allows for a more streamlined decision-making process and can help ensure that the child’s interests are protected.

Dealing with Conflict: Strategies for Resolving Disputes in Child Custody Agreements for Special Needs Children

Disputes can arise in any child custody agreement, but when it comes to special needs children, the stakes can be even higher. Here are some strategies for resolving disputes:

  • Consult with a legal professional: If you’re unsure of your legal rights or if you need advice on the best course of action, seek the guidance of a legal professional.
  • Try mediation: Mediation is a process in which a neutral third party helps facilitate negotiations between parties to resolve a dispute.
  • Consider arbitration: If mediation isn’t successful, consider arbitration. In arbitration, a neutral third party listens to both sides and makes a final decision, which is binding on both parties.
  • Keep the child’s best interests in mind: Always prioritize the child’s needs and interests above your own in resolving disputes.

De Novo Law: Free Consultations for Child Custody Agreements for Special Needs Children

At De Novo Law, we understand the unique challenges that parents of special needs children face in child custody agreements. That’s why we offer free initial consultations to help parents determine the best course of action. Our legal paraprofessionals are licensed to provide legal services in family law and are focused on offering accessible and affordable legal support to those in need. Contact us today to schedule your free consultation.

Special Needs Children and Child Custody Agreements-Special,Child

Understanding ARS 13-3102: Misconduct Involving Weapons in Arizona

Misconduct Involving Weapons in Arizona: ARS 13-3102 Explained

Weapons are considered essential tools, especially when it comes to self-defense and hunting. However, it's also important to follow the mandated laws governing the possession of weapons. In Arizona, the ARS 13-3102 law clearly defines what constitutes misconduct involving weapons and the possible penalties associated with violating this law.

What is ARS 13-3102 Law?

The ARS 13-3102 law covers various aspects of weapons possession, transportation, and use. According to this law, if anyone carries a deadly weapon without a permit, with the intent to use it unlawfully, or recklessly, they can face Class 4 felony charges.

Who is Prohibited by This Law?

The law prohibits multiple groups of people from possessing firearms. These include individuals who have been convicted of a felony or are serving probation or parole. It also prohibits anyone who is subject to a restraining order, convicted of domestic violence, and people who are found to be a danger to themselves or the community.

Penalties for Violating ARS 13-3102

The ARS 13-3102 law is broken down into different sections that specify the consequences associated with each offense. Violation of this law carries serious penalties, including fines, probation, and even felony charges. It also includes some exclusions for military personnel, law enforcement officials, and authorized manufacturers, dealers, and possessors of firearms.

What to Do if You are Facing Weapon Misconduct Charges

If you are accused of weapon misconduct and face charges under ARS 13-3102, it is essential to seek legal counsel immediately. An experienced criminal defense attorney can help in navigating the legal process and building a strong defense to protect your rights and freedom.


Weapons are necessary and provide a sense of security. However, it is crucial to follow the law and respect other people's rights. If you are facing misconduct charges, it's important to understand your rights and work with a professional attorney to protect them.

If you want to learn more about ARS 13-3102 and the consequences of weapon misconduct charges, visit AZ Criminal and Family Law for in-depth information.


Understanding the Use of Evidence in Domestic Violence Cases in Arizona

Investigative Article

The Burden of Proof: What Type of Evidence is Used in Domestic Violence Cases?

Domestic violence is a sensitive issue that affects millions of people in the United States. In Arizona, the legal system has strict measures in place to protect victims and prosecute perpetrators. However, the burden of proof is one of the core tenets of the legal process and plays a critical role in determining the outcome of the case. In this investigative article, we will explore the type of evidence used in domestic violence cases, how the prosecution builds its case, and what challenges the defense faces.

1. Types of Evidence in Domestic Violence Cases

There are several types of evidence that the prosecution can present in a domestic violence case, including:

  • Testimonials from witnesses: This may include the victim, family members, neighbors, law enforcement officials, etc.
  • Physical evidence: This may include photographs of injuries, medical reports, 911 recordings, and other tangible evidence.
  • Expert testimony: This may include testimony from professionals, such as medical experts, forensic specialists, etc. that can provide insight into the nature of the offense.
  • Electronic evidence: This may include text messages, emails, phone records, and other forms of electronic communication that the prosecution can use to show a pattern of abusive behavior.

2. Building a Case Against the Defendant

To secure a conviction for domestic violence, the prosecution must prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the defendant committed the crime. Their case must be built on a solid foundation of evidence that is coherent, compelling, and relevant. Here are some steps the prosecution typically follows when building a domestic violence case:

  • Collecting evidence: The prosecution will gather all relevant evidence, including witness statements, police reports, medical records, and other evidence.
  • Interviewing witnesses: The prosecution will interview witnesses to identify any discrepancies in their stories, assess their credibility, and obtain additional information.
  • Preparing testimony: The prosecution will prepare witnesses and experts for trial, ensuring they understand their rights and obligations and are prepared to answer questions under oath.
  • Creating a timeline: The prosecution will establish a timeline of events to create a clear picture of the offense and demonstrate the defendant's guilt.
  • Presenting the evidence: The prosecution will present the evidence at trial in a logical, coherent manner, using witnesses, experts, and other evidence to build a strong case to the jury.

3. Challenges Facing the Defense

Domestic violence cases present unique challenges for the defense. The high burden of proof for the prosecution places significant pressure on the defense team to find and present any evidence that raises reasonable doubt about the defendant's guilt. The following are some common challenges that the defense team faces:

  • Establishing motive: To create doubt about the prosecution's case, the defense may try to establish a plausible motive for why the victim might lie about the offense.
  • Challenging the credibility of witnesses: The defense will scrutinize witness statements and attempt to find inconsistencies or other weaknesses in their testimony to create reasonable doubt.
  • Presenting alternative theories of the offense: To create reasonable doubt about the prosecution's case, the defense may present an alternative theory of the offense, such as mistaken identity, self-defense, or defense of others.
  • Challenging the reliability of scientific evidence: The defense may challenge the reliability or admissibility of scientific evidence presented by the prosecution.

4. Conclusion

The legal system is designed to ensure that justice is served, and that the rights of all parties are protected. In domestic violence cases, it is crucial to adhere to the principles of the legal process to ensure fairness and justice prevail. The burden of proof places a significant burden on the prosecution to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the defendant committed the crime. With the right evidence and strategic preparation, the prosecution has a strong chance of securing a conviction. For the defense, the goal is to create reasonable doubt and prove innocence. However, this can be a formidable task, given the immense pressure to build a compelling case based on limited evidence. Overall, what is essential is that justice is served for all involved.

Burden of Proof-Domestic,Evidence